Just where did we think we were headed back in 1999, right before our calendars flipped over to the new millennium? The future of indie music didn't just seem blurry; it seemed downright endangered, threatened by the rising tide of electronic music and the staleness of the post-grunge bands and nu-metal that dominated rock radio. Of course, that made it the perfect time for a new set of visionaries to emerge and chart the course for the twisting, turning path alternative music has taken in the 21st century.

We honed in on those artists and movement-makers, and came up with a list that includes artists who embraced and repurposed electronic sounds, 20th century luminaries who redefined their approach in the internet era and artists who emerged from the ether with sounds that shook the status quo. We also included artists who had as much influence with their art as they did facilitating ground-shaking movements around them. Check them out in the gallery above, written by Chris Kissel and Tim Karan.